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[484] Mimar Sinan (c.1489–1588) was the most important architect of the classical period in Ottoman architecture. Recently Vakıfbank has won the 2017 FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship[511][512][513] and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history.[514]. [428] The drop was the result of events that had a significant impact on the country's demographic structure, such as the Armenian Genocide, the population exchange between Greece and Turkey[429] and the emigration of Christians that began in the late 19th century and gained pace in the first quarter of the 20th century. Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of complex earth movements that have shaped the region over thousands of years and still manifest themselves in fairly frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. [320] In 2018 Turkey ranked 6th in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 45.8 million foreign tourists visiting the country. [62] In the 10th century, the Seljuks started migrating from their ancestral homeland into Persia, which became the administrative core of the Great Seljuk Empire, after its foundation by Tughril. [282] The eastern part of that coast averages 2,200 millimetres (87 in) annually which is the highest precipitation in the country. [264] Turkey is the world's 37th-largest country in terms of area. [330] İstanbul Airport is planned to be the largest airport in the world, with a capacity to serve 150 million passengers a year. [187][188] Following the Arab Spring in December 2010, the choices made by the AKP government for supporting certain political opposition groups in the affected countries have led to tensions with some Arab states, such as Turkey's neighbour Syria since the start of the Syrian civil war, and Egypt after the ousting of President Mohamed Morsi. in, "The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus: A Wonder of the Ancient World", "The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus: The Un-Greek Temple and Wonder", "Anatolia and the Caucasus (Asia Minor), 1000 B.C. The Tanzimat reforms introduced previously unknown Western genres, primarily the novel and the short story. However, agriculture still accounted for a quarter of employment. [368][original research?] [437] At present, there are around 26,000 Jews in Turkey, the vast majority of whom are Sephardi. In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols at the Battle of Köse Dağ, causing the Seljuk Empire's power to slowly disintegrate. [a][24] After the Ottomans and the other Central Powers lost the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that had composed the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. [317] The public debt-to-GDP ratio peaked at 75.9 percent during the recession of 2001, falling to an estimated 26.9 percent by 2013.[318]. [197] In 2015, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar formed a "strategic alliance" against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. It is estimated that there are at least 47 ethnic groups represented in Turkey. The driest regions are the Konya Plain and the Malatya Plain, where annual rainfall is often less than 300 millimetres (12 inches). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, s.v. There are also some Sufi Muslims. [53] The Greco-Persian Wars started when the Greek city states on the coast of Anatolia rebelled against Persian rule in 499 BC. [11][original research? [518] Renowned Turkish freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestlers who won international competitions include Yaşar Doğu, Celal Atik, Mahmut Atalay, Hamza Yerlikaya, Rıza Kayaalp and Taha Akgül. They also won multiple medals over multiple decades at the Mediterranean Games. Fenerbahçe won the 2010 FIVB Women's Club World Championship and the 2012 CEV Women's Champions League. [159], Turkey's judicial system has been wholly integrated with the system of continental Europe. [272] The narrow coastal strip between the Pontic Mountains and the Black Sea is home to the Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests, which contain some of the world's few temperate rainforests. [450] Turkey is ranked 32nd out of 34 in the OECD's PISA study. [230] The initial reason given by the PKK for this was the oppression of Kurds in Turkey. Most of Turkey is geographically located within the continent of Asia. [37] The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage. [277][279] In the 21st century threats to biodiversity include desertification due to climate change in Turkey. Turkey has a total area of 302,455 square miles, and the population was estimated to be 82,835,090 in 2017. [143], Supporters of Atatürk's reforms are called Kemalists, as distinguished from Islamists, representing the two diverging views regarding the role of religion in legislation, education and public life. Turkey's extraordinary ecosystem and habitat diversity has produced considerable species diversity. [127] Turkish municipalities have local legislative bodies (belediye meclisi) for decision-making on municipal issues. [55] The process of Hellenization that began with Alexander's conquest accelerated under Roman rule, and by the early centuries of the Christian Era, the local Anatolian languages and cultures had become extinct, being largely replaced by ancient Greek language and culture. Turkey straddles the Bosporus Straits and is a Eurasian country; it bridges the continents of Europe and Asia. [295] The rate of female employment in Turkey was 30 percent in 2012,[296] the lowest among all OECD countries. [516][517] In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Ottoman Turkish oil wrestling champions such as Koca Yusuf, Nurullah Hasan and Kızılcıklı Mahmut acquired international fame in Europe and North America by winning world heavyweight wrestling championship titles. The Anatolian leopard is still found in very small numbers in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Turkey. [214] A total of 90 B61 nuclear bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base, 40 of which are allocated for use by the Turkish Air Force in case of a nuclear conflict, but their use requires the approval of NATO. The Mevlevi Order of dervishes, which was established in Konya during the 13th century by Sufi poet Celaleddin Rumi, played a significant role in the Islamization of the diverse people of Anatolia who had previously been Hellenized. Turkish basketball club Fenerbahçe played the Final of the EuroLeague in three consecutive seasons (2016, 2017 and 2018), becoming the European champions in 2017 and runners-up in 2016 and 2018. [42] The settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age. ", "Democracy Index 2017: Revenge of the "deplorables, "General Directorate of Judicial Records", "European Commission: Turkey 2015 report", "European Parliament resolution of 14 April 2016 on the 2015 report on Turkey", "Turkey's institutions are failing to comply with good governance principles and combat corruption", "As ISIS attacks mount, Turkey steps up its war on free speech", "The United Nations Organization and Turkey", "Turkey's Relations with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)", "The Republic of Turkey and The Organization of The Islamic Conference", "The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)", "Turkey's relations with the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)", "The Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization (BSEC)", "SCO accepts Afghanistan as observer, Turkey dialogue partner", "No: 253, 26 September 2013, Press Release on Turkey's Membership to the Asia Cooperation Dialogue", "False Friends. Hundreds of television channels, thousands of local and national radio stations, several dozen newspapers, a productive and profitable national cinema and a rapid growth of broadband Internet use constitute a vibrant media industry in Turkey. [396], The highest Islamic religious authority is the Presidency of Religious Affairs (Turkish: Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı); it interprets the Hanafi school of law, and is responsible for regulating the operation of the country's 80,000 registered mosques and employing local and provincial imams. [138] The office of Prime Minister has been abolished and its powers (together with those of the Cabinet) have been transferred to the President, who is the head of state and is elected for a five-year term by direct elections. On 29 June 1939, the Republic of Hatay voted in favour of joining Turkey with a referendum. Following the restoration of constitutional monarchy with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, theatrical activities increased and social problems began to be reflected at the theatre as well as in historical plays. In 1517, Selim I expanded Ottoman rule into Algeria and Egypt, and created a naval presence in the Red Sea. [337] The Blue Stream, a major trans-Black Sea gas pipeline, delivers natural gas from Russia to Turkey. In line with the aforementioned article of the Turkish Constitution and related laws, the court system in Turkey can be classified under three main categories; which are the Judicial Courts, Administrative Courts and Military Courts. won the 1995–96 FIBA Korać Cup, were the runners-up of the 2018–19 EuroLeague and the 1992–93 FIBA Saporta Cup, and finished third at the 1999–2000 EuroLeague and the 2000–01 SuproLeague. East Thrace, the part of Turkey in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosporus and the Dardanelles (collectively called the Turkish Straits). [399] For many decades, the wearing of the hijab was banned in schools and government buildings because it was viewed as a symbol of political Islam. [189][190] As of 2016[update], Turkey does not have an ambassador in either Syria or Egypt. [277][278] The Eurasian lynx and the European wildcat are other felid species which are currently found in the forests of Turkey. Most of the roots of modern Turkish literature were formed between the years 1896 and 1923. [252][253] Many journalists have been arrested using charges of "terrorism" and "anti-state activities" such as the Ergenekon and Balyoz cases, while thousands have been investigated on charges such as "denigrating Turkishness" or "insulting Islam" in an effort to sow self-censorship. His second book was about palace cuisine during the reign of Mehmet II. The Caspian tiger, now extinct, lived in the easternmost regions of Turkey until the latter half of the 20th century. Several wild species of tulip are native to Anatolia, and the flower was first introduced to Western Europe with species taken from the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. The Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism currently promotes Turkish tourism under the Turkey Home name. The Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated. The mix of cultural influences in Turkey is dramatised, for example, in the form of the "new symbols of the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the novels of Orhan Pamuk, recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.[477]. [14], Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC,[38] while Çatalhöyük is a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC. Turkish Statistical Institute announced that 76.3 billion TL was spent for healthcare in 2012; 79.6 percent of which was covered by the Social Security Institution and 15.4 percent of which was paid directly by the patients. Cette région est appelée Trakya en turc et corre… It sets out the main principles of government and establishes Turkey as a unitary centralised state. [496][497], Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine. The Administrative Code bears similarities with its French counterpart, and the Penal Code with its Italian counterpart. [472], The earliest examples of Turkish paper marbling, called ebru in Turkish, are said to be a copy of the Hâlnâme by the poet Arifî. [282] Temperatures of −30 to −40 °C (−22 to −40 °F) can occur in eastern Anatolia. The Bosphorus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines running through Turkey that led to the creation of the Black Sea. [442][443][444][445], The Ministry of National Education is responsible for pre-tertiary education.

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